22. One can see as much as one knows.


Subjects in medical school are all related, so the professor who teaches last is the most comfortable. When orthopedic surgeon teaches about vertebra and spinal cord, the neurosurgeon teaches easily, and if neurosurgeon teaches such structures first, the orthopedic surgeon teaches with comfort. This is because vertebra and spinal cord overlap. The first subject that students learn in medical school is anatomy, so anatomists are not relaxed. It is also because we have to talk about other subjects.

For example, the kidney is an important vital organ, but when you dissect it, there is nothing much to be seen. You can only see the renal cortex, renal medulla, renal artery and vein, and urine passage which connects to the ureter. Therefore, anatomist talks about other subjects and makes students think.

First, kidney functions are related to kidney morphology. "Parts of blood going into the kidney become urine and goes out to the ureter, and the rest goes out to renal vein. This means that the renal vein's blood is renal artery's blood minus urine." Physiology will teach about kidney function, so by explaining the function, I would be pre-teaching. Second are the structures that you cannot see with your bare eye, but have to see with microscope. "To produce urine, urine has to be filtered from blood. The capillary for this is called glomerulus. Glomerulus is located at renal cortex." Microscope structures will be learned from histology, so I would be pre-teaching in this case as well. Third is the content about kidney transplantation. "In a kidney donor, you have to cut the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter, and in a kidney recipient you have to connect three ductus." These will be learned in surgery lectures, but I am also pre-teaching. Like this, if I talk about kidney briefly, the students will be more informed and change their views on kidney. You see what you know.


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Anatomy can be compared with an observatory. Anatomy looks at the human body with bare eyes, and an observatory watches a city from far away. Just like how anatomists talk about what people cannot see with bare eyes, observatory guides talk about what people cannot see from far away. "That building is a place that contains certain treasures, and that square is a place where this incident happened." A guide talks about what tourists may see when they actually visit that building and square. Without anatomists, students cannot know what stories are behind the things they see in the human body. There is a limit to what you can learn from books. Similarly without the guide, tourists cannot find out what story is in a city. You need to learn even with the help of other people, and then you will see clearly.


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We call a student who understands what he/she learned well a brain, and we call students who just dissect without complete understanding a fork crane. That is, a student who utilizes his or her head is the brain and a student who utilizes his or her body only is the fork crane. A fork crane has to understand with the help of brain's and then will be able to correctly dissect and see.


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I will finish with a story of medical images. When a patient visits hospital, they take medical images including radiographs. People who take medical images are technicians, and radiologists are the ones who decipher the images. For radiologists to correctly decipher the medical images, radiologists should know about related anatomy, pathology, and clinical medicine. Patients do not see radiologists so they do not know, but doctors acknowledge their abilities. Not only in anatomy, but in other morphologies, you see only until what you know.